What is Cartographic Generalization/Map Generalization | Importance of Cartographic Generalization
What is Cartographic Generalization?
Cartographic generalization or map generalization is the process of limiting the amount of detail displayed on a map. This includes selecting a map with the right scale, purpose, and medium.
When the map purpose implies a simpler design, this type of Generalization generally consists of decreasing the visual detail of data by reducing the map scale.
Because it is impossible to depict every feature of the world on a map, every map has been generalized to some extent.
Because of the rising availability of detailed GIS data and the automated compilation of maps on the web, map generalization has become important.
Because visual detail helps to emphasize the most significant map elements, generalization is directly tied to the concept of visual hierarchy, while less detailed aspects tend to draw less attention.
After generalizing map data, the significance of what remains on the map must surpass the insignificance of the generalized objects.
The Generalization Process
Before a cartographer can begin the data alterations necessary by the generalization process, information must first be picked for portrayal; the information must be congruent with the chart’s goal.
Thus, generalization may be understood to function in two stages:
(1) selecting the material to be portrayed; and
(2) generalizing this data in terms of scale and format of the final product.
As a result, selection is a required pre-processing step before generalization.
Information selection is essentially a binary question; either the information is necessary or it is not.
The information does not need to be modified during the selection stage; therefore, it can be done without respect for chart format or scale.
Selection can thus be viewed as a sifting process that separates out the information required for a specific product or to support a specific production requirement.
A digital MUG data base, for example, might contain cartographic information to support the production of a variety of products, with data resolution potentially equaling the largest scale product in the data base and data available for many geographic areas, not all of which may be required for a specific job.
A sifting function can decide whether to include or exclude chart information for a specific product or group of products based on a geographic area.
Following the selection procedure, the generalization of each collection of data that comprises the selected information is possible. These alterations are typically classified into four types:
- Simplification: Entails determining the main properties of the data, retaining and maybe exaggerating these critical traits, and removing unnecessary detail.
- Classification: An ordered, structured and sometimes non-linear display of the data elements on a map.
- Symbolization: The pictorial representation of key traits, comparative significances, and relative placements that have been scaled and/or grouped.
- Induction: The use of the logical process of induction in cartography.
The “Generalization Process” is formed by the combination of the four preceding phases.
Main Factors Affecting Cartographic Generalization
The degree of cartographic generalization is impacted by a number of elements, including the map’s scale, theme and application, geographical characteristics of the cartographic area, and symbol size.
The size of features on a map are roughly related to the degree of generalization. Larger scale maps tend to be more generalized than smaller scale maps, though this relationship is not always clear.
Certain themes and topics lend themselves to specific cartographic generalization methods. A map of a nation with small towns and villages, for example, might be better portrayed with a generalized selection of towns while showing major transportation routes, roads and geographic features in great detail.
Distinct Physical Characteristics of the Map Area
Topography, climate, vegetation, etc. greatly influence the degree of cartographic generalization. Maps of areas with a lot of open space (deserts, plains, and tundra) require less generalization than maps of areas with a high density of features (conurbations).
The purpose for which the map will be used and the type of information expected to be portrayed on it affect the nature and degree of generalization.
Cartographic Generalization Challenges
Cartographic generalization is a method of restructuring data to represent it in a more efficient, understandable and uniform manner.
When information is generalized, many details are removed so that it becomes possible to display the key elements of the data on a map.
Cartographic generalization also makes it possible to depict the same data on a variety of maps with different scales and levels of detail for multiple purposes.
Generalization presents cartographers with many challenges.
- One challenge is how to retain accuracy while still altering the original data in order to reduce its size. Generalization is a process of compression, where information must be improved but not discarded; it is impossible to make any changes to the original data without removing some of its quality.
- Another challenge facing cartographers is how to accurately depict all data (including the mundane and trivial) while retaining the essential qualities that make it valuable. Generalization simplifies information by eliminating the need for detail; however, if all the details are removed then it becomes impossible to tell what is significant and what is not.
- Still another challenge is how to convert the original data into a number of generalizations that are compatible with each other. The different levels of detail required for different applications (e.g., political, functional and geographic) may conflict with each other; this problem is particularly pronounced if the same data is used in multiple contexts.
- Major issues regarding cartographic generalization include the selection of data elements to be generalized, format changes and scale. The selection mechanisms may include automatic and manual methods, as well as those automated by software programs. The generalization process may be carried out by hand, on a computer or both.
- The presentation of information on a map (symbolization) is usually dependent on the map’s scale, theme and application. Generalized symbol systems can be developed for different purposes, but this does not necessarily mean that there are methods for all purposes.
- The relationship between cartographic generalization and statistical generalization is complex, as the two processes have somewhat different goals and methodologies; however, many of their common concepts are closely intertwined.
Cartographic Generalization Example
Making a small narrow spit of land larger, for example, allows you to see its qualities more clearly on a small-scale map. When a map is decreased in size or viewed at a lower scale, this process is frequently used to highlight minute physical details more clearly.
Generalization is a tricky process as it is not always easy to determine which details should be shown and which can be excluded.
Another example is simplifying a map in order to pinpoint a certain geographic location. It may be possible to show only a small portion of the region, but this may prove inadequate for all relevant purposes; in such cases, the remainder of the territory is generalized.
Importance of Cartographic Generalization
It’s used to preserve data in digital form for long periods and for long distances between the creator of information and the final user. With cartographic generalization, it is possible to store vast amounts of information in electronic databases.
Generalization is also important to enable large-scale analyses of geographic phenomena across space and time.
The majority of map data is generated at a high level of detail, but cartographers must aggregate it into smaller units before they can analyze its attributes in greater detail. When a map of the world is reduced to the continent-scale, for example, it becomes possible to see how the physical characteristics vary from place to place and analyze trends involving such things as temperature, rainfall and vegetation.
Pharaohs of Egypt used cartographic generalization extensively in their efforts to keep records and documents safe from destruction by water, enemy attack, and plague.
Generalization is also important because it saves time and money. Without this process, it would be almost impossible to share geographical data on such a large scale.
Future Uses of Cartographic Generalization
As more information is added to electronic databases, it makes it possible for them to be made available at a global level.
Cartographic generalization is becoming more important with the increasing number of maps being produced and the greater range of uses to which they are put. The volume of data that must be transferred is also growing rapidly.
Digital data storage makes it possible to move geographically referenced information (including digital maps) across significant distances and over a long span of time, without any loss in accuracy or quality.
Digital cartographic information can be transmitted to other locations almost instantaneously. Increasing use of digital map data in progressively smaller-scale applications, e.g., for topographical, information, aeronautical and hydrographic purposes.
Generalization is a crucial process in scientific digital cartography. It is used to simplify large-scale data sets into manageable formats that can be processed efficiently.
Generalization is expected to increase as the number of data files increases and as the use of small-scale maps becomes increasingly popular. Some of the issues involved have been discussed in relation to satellite images.
Geographic information systems (GIS) cannot function properly unless they are able to store and work with worldwide data sets. Generalization is thus an important component in the design of GIS.
Physical factors such as distance, sea area, and land area play a large role in influencing climate systems. For example, without cartographic generalization, it would probably be impossible for meteorologists to produce accurate maps showing precipitation frequency and intensity based on their models.
Cartographic generalization is a very important process for everyday life. Today, we have access to vast amounts of information that is relevant to us.
We can contact thousands of people in an instant and get answers in seconds. This kind of communication would not be possible with cartographic generalization.
Cartographic Generalization Methods
There are two general methods used to classify the details which can be removed, deleted or simply summarized:
- The first method is to exclude all values that are less than a specified value. For example, in the United States, a small town’s population may be generalized as a value less than 1,000.
- The second method is to reduce information so it can represent all the data in a single statement.
Cartographic Generalization FAQs
What is cartographic generalization?
The process of generalizing information to simplify it so that it can be displayed on a map. This is useful because although large-scale maps would be useful, they would be too complex to interpret and unnecessary information would have to be displayed.
Why is cartographic generalization important?
Cartographic generalization is a process that is used to simplify and stylize map features in order to create a more effective map.
This process is important because it allows mapmakers to focus on the most important information and makes the map easier to understand.
It is also important because it can help to improve the legibility of a map, which can be especially helpful for users who are not familiar with the area that is being mapped.
What is the difference between cartographic generalization and aggregation?
Aggregation is the process of collecting spatially referenced information into a single feature on a map.
This happens at the level of scale where we must give up information about what is found at smaller scales in order to say something about the larger area. Cartographic generalization is used to summarize or simplify information before it is aggregated.
What are some examples of cartographic generalization?
The most common examples are simplifying map objects such as roads, coastlines and boundaries; reducing or eliminating symbols; or summarizing text or numbers.
What is classification in cartographic generalization?
The second component of cartographic generalization is classification. It entails converting data into a format that can be conveniently depicted on a map.
An example of this form of generalization would be to divide poverty data into five groups of counties, each with a mutually exclusive value range.
What is symbolization in cartographic generalization?
Symbolization is the process of changing the way a feature is constructed in order to make it more suited for the scale at hand. Traditionally, generalization refers to decreasing detail in a map to the extent necessary to preserve legibility and usefulness at a certain scale.
What is a cartographic generalization Quizlet?
deciding on colors, fonts, and images so that all of an organization’s maps look the same Choose a definition for the phrase “cartographic generalization.” reducing the number of features to create a clearer and more effective map Choose a definition for the phrase “map frame.”
Which is an example of map generalization?
First, graphical limitations and scale can be used to define generalization. The information on a map is represented by symbols. A 6 m wide road, for example, shown on a map by a 0.6 mm line, is expanded 10 times at 1:100,000 and 100 times at 1:1,000,000.
What is the most common way of generalizing maps?
Symbols: simplifying the symbols on a map. Maps that show symbols are necessary for showing countries, states, counties, or even towns. The symbols of a map made by generalization may be changed to make it easier to use.
Map frames: reducing the size of a new image to fit onto an existing map frame. Sizing depends on scale while keeping the same number of features in all areas so that they represent the same values.
What is cartographic data?
Cartographic Data is a module of the International E&P Database that contains several geographic data layers for geographic mapping, GIS analysis, and spatial validation.
This geographic module serves as the foundation for many of our high-quality maps, as well as the backdrop elements of HIS data browsers and GIS applications.
What are the advantages of cartographic generalization?
Cartographic generalization assists in improving the manageability of geographic data and is useful for a variety of purposes, such as symbolizing and classifying the data to make it easier to locate on maps.
Generalization is also used to summarize and simplify datasets that are too large or complicated.
Applications of cartographic generalization?
In the map-making processes, cartographic generalization might involve simplifying data, keeping only a few features of the map, and eliminating some irrelevant information.
Cartographic generalization plays an important role in GIS because it is used to summarize and simplify datasets that are too large or complicated. It can be used to facilitate cartography and geographic analysis.
Cartographic generalization has a significant influence on cartography and GIS in general, especially cartography. It is used to simplify maps and reduce the detail and complexity of map information.
What are some examples of cartographic generalization?
Examples of Generalization. The most common example is to convert data into a format that can be easily displayed on a map for easy use by humans. Without this type of generalization, the map information would be too complex for humans to read and interpret.
What is an example of classification in cartographic generalization?
One example would be to divide poverty data into five groups of counties, each with a mutually exclusive value range.
What is cartographic technique?
The cartographic approach is used to investigate the spatial arrangement principles of phenomena, as well as their interrelationships, dependence, and development.
Visual analysis is the direct visual examination of the spatial organization, combinations, linkages, and changes in phenomena using maps.
Cartography is the art of depicting and representing maps.
What are some examples of data analysis in cartographic generalization?
Examples of Data Analysis. One example is to look at the data and find ways to adjust it based on what we know from the in-depth analysis.
What is map Generalization Class 11?
Map generalization is the process of selecting and representing information on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the map’s display medium, without necessarily keeping all intricate geographical or other cartographic nuances.
What is meant by a map’s visual hierarchy?
The graphical representation of an ordered order of map elements, with the most important elements having the most visual prominence, is known as a visual hierarchy.